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Methodologies > PAP-PS/DM©



Reference Frame:

The new challenges that face organizations require to review their strategies, to considere new management tools, and to develop new skills in their teams.

The complexity in organizations has grown in all its aspects, so their processes require the use of modern techniques and tools of management and control, and also their leaders broaden their skills.

So the question is: Is it possible to replace experience? Clearly not, but if it is necessary and advisable to incorporate methodological knowledge which is necessary to reduce this gap and make decisions with the lowest possible risk of error.

Today, more than ever, organizations need to strengthen teams, but have not got, in general, enough time for it. Therefore, it is convenient to work together in the acquisition and exchange of information, to reach a shared vision of the goals and values ​​and incorporate methodological knowledge to do so successfully.

Definition and Scope of our Value Proposition:

What is PAP-PS/DM? It is the name of one of the most well known and applied processes in organizations to improve individual performance and the whole team, from the Managers to the levels of operation, through Participatory Analycal Processes.

The Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) method is a step by step process that helps people to organize and analyze efficiently vast amounts of information and take the most appropriate actions. The use of PSDM helps people to determine each individual's knowledge, build consensus, gain commitment and resolve a variety of issues. Everybody is tuned in, using a common language and approach. They all work toward the same goal, regardless their experience or expertise.

PSDM provides a framework to solve problems and make decisions that can be integrated into standard operating procedures. It is used to reinforce other operational improvement tools and other continuous improvement programs. In many organizations is simply the way they solve problems and make decisions.

PSDM is composed by the following four processes:

Situation Appraisal

Break complex situations into actionable and prioritized components that put the right people
working on the right things in the right way.

What it is:
Situation Appraisal reveals all aspects of a situation and their relative priority. It then determines what different courses of actions are needed and who needs to be involved
for effective resolution.

What Participants will learn:
• Identify and evaluate real challenges facing the organization today.
• Break down complex issues into workable elements.
• Establish priorities and allocate resources for most critical concerns.
• Choose the right analytical tool to handle each issue.
• Involve the right people to resolve each issue.

Problem Analysis

Find the root cause of any problem and correct it.

What it is:
Problem Analysis is a process for gathering and analyzing just the information and experience needed to find and correct the true cause of a problem.

What Participants will learn:
• Respond quickly but avoid panic and wasteful actions when faced with a problem.
• Gather information critical to solving the problem while avoiding irrelevant data.
• Evaluate possible causes systematically to determine the most likely cause.
• Prove conclusively that the true cause has been found.
• Apply the same corrective actions to areas which may have the same problem.

Decision Analysis

Make the best balanced choice which is fully supported and implemented.

What it is:
Decision Analysis marries logic, expertise, creativity and factual information to guide individuals and groups to sound choices.

What Participants will learn:
• Clarify the purpose of a decision.
• Quantify the relative importance of factors influencing the decision.
• Use creativity constructively to find the best range of options.
• Evaluate alternatives objectively and fairly.
• Reveal and assess the acceptable risks of a choice.
• Present and assess recommendations and build commitment to a choice.
• Make better choices under time pressure.

Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis

Prepare and respond to future threats and opportunities.

What it is:
Potential Problem/Opportunity Analysis combines past experience and creative insights about the future to logically analyze and prepare for the risks and rewards that could occur.

What Participants will learn:
• Identify critical areas of any plan.
• Assess the relative importance of threats and opportunities.
• Use creativity constructively to plan how to avoid future problems and benefit from future opportunities.
• Involve others to translate planning into action.
• Respond quickly while avoiding costly mistakes.


Among the years of experience of PSDM thousands of leaders, supervisors, technicians and operators were trained to react against problems, make decisions and plans that they face on the daily basis. Many people found in it a body of knowledge and practical tools that allowed them to act effectively, achieve their own objectives and expected outcomes of companies and organizations of all kinds.

Through the use of case studies and accelerated learning concepts, attendees develop specific techniques of asking questions that enhance their ability to make decisions, break down complex situations, solve hard problems, and make future plans.

More specifically, PSDM can develop in people at all levels on the organization, attitudes, knowledge and skills to minimize the effects of uncertainty and disorder.

What is PSDM more precisely:

It is a theoretical / practical application which helps organizations to enhance personal management and provides conceptual and instrumentally participation in teams.

PSDM is based on logical methods simply because logic is a common element in all men when it comes to develop thoughts.

All activities of men, especially in organizations, are part of the following four unique categories:


A suitable management of these four categories of reality allows men to act more accurately since they require to:

1. Analyze situations that concern for proper management,

2. Find the reasons of deviations that cause negative effects, which are highlighted as problems to solve,

3. Take as many right decisions off all kinds and importance,

4. Plan and execute decisions with minimal risk

PSDM is a Proactive Process that was divided into Units, each of which will serve to develop a Primary Skill, where the necessary steps to achieve this skill will be treated as sub-skills that during the seminar will be learned and practiced.


Technology is taught and practiced as a seminar that lasts 30 hours. Each seminar must be continued in a validation practical meeting in which the seminar financier checks how the concepts learned were put into practice and therefore value its investment in training, otherwise the seminar remain in memory as an interesting theory and nothing else.

Consecutive days are recommended that last for three days and a half. You can always choose the most suitable days for you, including weekends, and times, but the total time will be 3 and a half.

Instructors - usually two - vary according to the audience; the goal is to create a positive classroom atmosphere. The maximum number of people for a seminar is 24 participants and are not recommended groups of less than 12 people.

• It is not convenient that Managers access to the methodology after his or her subordinates, moreover, accessing to the methodology will be better in terms of being able to select those who should do something and to set priorities.

In a second phase is advisable to extend this training to leadership levels of the rest of the branches or regional offices through an e-learning programme or semi-face-to-face method.


Any member of the organization, no matter his or her hierarchical position, work under the following rule: Results. The higher is the hierarchical position, the more severe is the rule. This is important to understand because the tool to help you to get results could be considered a purely intellectual creation.

The deep and humanistic reason that inspired the creation of the PSDM and its enhancements, was the fact of being aware of the troubles and injustice that generates the lack of logic in processes where there is a group of people working together. So, logic is the very essence of the method.

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